COMPUTER VISION INTRODUCTION AND HOW IT WORKS
By Opex AI Team | September 1, 2018
The phenomenon that makes machines such as computers or mobile phones see the surroundings is known as Computer Vision. Serious work on re-creating a human eye started way back in 50s and since then, we have come a long way. Computer vision has already made its way to our mobile phone via different e-commerce or camera apps.
Think of what more can be done by machine when they will be able to see as accurate as a human eye. Human eye is a complex structure and it goes through more complex phenomenon of understanding the environment. In a similar fashion, making machines see things and make them capable enough to figure out what they are seeing and further categorize it, is still a pretty tough job.
A classical application of computer vision is handwriting recognition for digitizing handwritten content (we’ll explore more use cases below). Outside of just recognition, other methods of analysis include:
• Video motion analysis uses computer vision to estimate the velocity of objects in a video, or the camera itself.
• In image segmentation, algorithms partition images into multiple sets of views.
• Scene reconstruction creates a 3D model of a scene inputted through images or video .
• In image restoration, noise such as blurring is removed from photos using Machine Learning based filters.
Any other application that involves understanding pixels through software can safely be labeled as computer vision.
How Computer Vision Works
One of the major open questions in both Neuroscience and Machine Learning is: how exactly do our brains work, and how can we approximate that with our own algorithms? The reality is that there are very few working and comprehensive theories of brain computation; so despite the fact that Neural Nets are supposed to “mimic the way the brain works,” nobody is quite sure if that’s actually true.
The same paradox holds true for computer vision – since we’re not decided on how the brain and eyes process images, it’s difficult to say how well the algorithms used in production approximate our own internal mental processes. For example, studies have shown some functions that we thought happen in the brain of frogs actually take place in the eyes. We’re a far cry from amphibians, but similar uncertainty exists in human cognition.
A. Represent colors by numbers:
In computer science, each color is represented by a specified HEX value. That is how machines are programmed to understand what colors the image pixels are made up. Whereas as humans we have an inherited knowledge to differ between the shades.
B. Segmentation of Image:
Computers are made to identify similar group of colors and then segment the image i.e. distinguish the foreground from background. The technique of color gradient is used to find edges of different objects.
C. Finding corners:
After segmentation, images are then looked up for certain features, also known as corners. In simple words, algorithms search for lines that meet at an angle and cover a specific part of the image with one color shade. Features, also called corners are the building blocks which help to find more detailed information contained in the image.
D. Find textures:
Another important aspect to identify any image correctly is to determine the texture in the image. The difference in textures between two objects makes it easier for a machine to correctly categorize an object.
E. Make a guess:
After implementing the above steps, a machine needs to make a nearly-right guess and match the image with those present in the database.